The Idgham rule is used when Noon sakinah or tanween is followed by one of the Idgham letters which are:
The rule is applied by merging the tanween or noon Sakinah with the Idgham letter and pronouncing it.
Now let’s learn more about its types and how to use them.
What Is Idgham?
Idgham tajweed refers to merging letters. As the word Idgham in English means ‘merging something with something else’. And that is the case in the tajweed Idgham. We merge the Idgham letter with the tanween or noon sakinah and pronounce them as one letter. However, the sound it makes differs based on the characteristics of the two letters.
There are two types of it Idgham with Ghunnah and without Ghunnah. When to use each one of them? When you find any of the two letters (ل ر), then this is Idgham without Ghunnah, and when you find any of the rest Idgham letters which are (ي ن م و) then apply the Idgham with Ghunnah.
Idgham in Tajweed happens when nun Sakinah or tanween is followed by any of the Idgham letters, and they are ي , ر , م , ل , و , ن. And you will pronounce it by merging nun Sakinah or tanween with the Idgham letter. The stress in reciting will be on the succeeding letter, why? Because of the shaddah sign.
What are the two types of Idgham?
Now we understand the meaning of tajweed idgham and when to use it, but what are its different types? Will, there are two types of Idgham and they are:
- Idgham with Ghunnah
- Idgham without Ghunnah
Let’s learn about each one of them.
1. Idgham with Ghunnah.
Idgham with Ghunnah or as it’s called Idgham with nasalization means that the sound comes out from the nose. When to apply this type? When you find any of the following Idgham letters (ي, ن, م, و), you can memorize them by putting them into the word يَنْمُو. Those four letters are called the letters of Idgham with Ghunnah.
How to apply this rule? If you found any of the four letters following the Noon Sakinah or Tanween, then the Noon Sakinah or Tanween will not be pronounced, instead you will merge the letter before them with the Idgham letter. And to recite the word correctly you should stress on the sound that comes from the merging of the two letters. Here’s an example:
وَجَعَلْنَا سِرَاجًا وَهَّاجًا (An-Naba:13).
The letter (و – waw) in the word “وَهَّاجًا” followed the Tanween in the word “وَجَعَلْنَا” therefore, we will drop the tanween and merge the letter Jeem (جً) with the Idgham letter (و – waw).
Let’s take another example to practice our understanding:
جَزَاءً مِّن رَّبِّكَ عَطَاءً حِسَابًا (An-Naba:36).
Here in the word “جَزَاءً” we can see the tanween and it is followed by the Idgham letter (مِ – Meem), in the word “مِّن”. Therefore, we will merge the Hamza (ءً) with the (مِ – Meem), and recite them as one letter.
وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللَّـهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَمَا هُمْ بِمُؤْمِنِينَ (Al-Baqarah:8).
We can see the Noon Sakinah in the word “مَنْ” followed by the Idgham letter (يَ) in the word “يَقُولُ” which is one of the Idgham with Ghunnah letters, therefore you will stress on the sound that comes from merging the two letters Meem with Yaa, and ignore the sound of the letter noon Sakinah. The sound that is produced from merging the two is “mayy”.
Here are some other Examples of Idgham with Ghunnah to test yourself:
أَوْ كَصَيِّبٍ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فِيهِ ظُلُمَاتٌ وَرَعْدٌ وَبَرْقٌ يَجْعَلُونَ أَصَابِعَهُمْ فِي آذَانِهِمْ مِنَ الصَّوَاعِقِ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ ۚوَاللَّـهُ مُحِيطٌ بِالْكَافِرِينَ (Al-Baqarah:19)
إِذْ أَوَى الْفِتْيَةُ إِلَى الْكَهْفِ فَقَالُوا رَبَّنَا آتِنَا مِنْ لَدُنْكَ رَحْمَةً وَهَيِّئْ لَنَا مِنْ أَمْرِنَا رَشَدًا (Al-Kahf:10)
2. Idgham without Ghunnah.
The second type of Idgham in tajweed is Idgham without Ghunnah, when to apply this rule? When you find any of the two letters Laam (ل) and Raa (ر) before the Noon Sakinah. Just like we did in the above type, you will drop the noon Sakinah and join the letter that comes before it (Laam (ل) or Raa (ر)) with the letter that comes after it. If any of the two letters (Laam (ل) and Raa (ر)) follows the tanween then the sound produced by the presence of the tanween will be dropped.
Here are some examples of Idghaam without Ghunnah:
فَإِنِ انْتَهَوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّـهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ (Al-Baqarah:192)
We can see the tanween in the word “غَفُورٌ” and after it we can see the letter Raa in the word “رَحِيمٌ”, how will we read it? Yes by dropping the tanween and replacing it with Dummah. So instead of reading it as “Ghafoorun Raheem” it will be recited as “Ghafoorur Raheem”.
أُولَـٰئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ (Al-Baqarah:5)
In this example we can see the noon Sakinah in the word “مِنْ” followed by the letter Raa in the word “رَبِّهِمْ”. Therefore, we will drop the letter noon Sakinah and merge the letter before it, which is Meem with the Raa. And we will pronounce it as “Mir-Rabbihim” and not “Min Rabbihim”.
وَمَنْ أَضَلُّ مِمَّنْ يَدْعُو مِنْ دُونِ اللَّـهِ مَنْ لَا يَسْتَجِيبُ لَهُ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَهُمْ عَنْ دُعَائِهِمْ غَافِلُونَ (Al-Ahqaf:5)
In this example we can see the noon Sakinah in the word “مَنْ” followed by the letter Laam in the word “لَا”, so, we will drop the noon Sakinah and it will be pronounced “Mallaa” instead of “Man-Laa”.
How many letters are there in Idgham?
There are 6 letters in Idgham and they are:
We know that in the Arabic language, we have vowels and non-vowels. In Idgham we merge the two of them and recite them as one letter. So, simply put, Idgham is the merging of a non-vowel letter with a vowel letter to producing one letter and is recited as one sound.
You can simply memorize the letters by forming a word like يَرْمَلُون or لر ينمو, choose whatever works best for you. Now there’s one thing to know about Idgham.
Idgham examples from Quran?
Here are some examples that show you how to use one of the tajweed rules idgham:
وَمَا بِكُم مِّن نِّعْمَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّـهِ
And whatever you have of favor – it is from Allah. (16:53)
Working [hard] and exhausted. (88:3)
Example of Al-idgham of the noon as sakeena and the tanween with the letter م
أَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّمَا نُمِدُّهُم بِهِ مِن مَّالٍ وَبَنِينَ
Do they think that what We extend to them of wealth and children (23:55)
فِي عَمَدٍ مُّمَدَّدَةٍ
In extended columns. (104:9)
وَمَا لَكُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّـهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ
And you have not other than Allah any protector or any helper. (29:22)
تَبَّتْ يَدَا أَبِي لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ
May the hands of Abu Lahab be ruined, and ruined, is he. (111:1)
وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِنَ الصَّالِحَاتِ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَلَا يَخَافُ ظُلْمًا وَلَا هَضْمًا
But he who does of righteous deeds while he is a believer will neither fear injustice nor deprivation. (20:112)
يَوْمَئِذٍ يَصْدُرُ النَّاسُ أَشْتَاتًا لِّيُرَوْا أَعْمَالَهُمْ
That Day, the people will depart separated [into categories] to be shown [the result of] their deeds. (99:6)
أُولَـٰئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ
Those are upon [right] guidance from their Lord, (2:5)
فَهُوَ فِي عِيشَةٍ رَّاضِيَةٍ
He will be in a pleasant life. (101:7)
Example of Al-idgham without ghunna of the noon as sakeena and the tanween with the letter ل
وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ
Nor is there to Him any equivalent.” (112:4)
وَدَمٍ لَّبَنًا خَالِصًا سَائِغًا لِّلشَّارِبِينَ
And blood – pure milk, palatable to drinkers. (16:66)
What is Idgham Naqis?
One of the types of Idgham types is idgham with nasalization (ghunna) and it’s also called Idgham Naqis. Why it’s called Idgham Naqis? Because it keeps the characteristics of Ghunna when applying the rule.
What are the Ghunna letters?
Ghunna refers to the sound that comes from the nose when pronouncing specific letters. And this sound is found in the case of the two letters Meem and Noon.
The quality of ghunna is present in the letters م and ن. So whenever we pronounce these letters the sound will go into the nose which is known as ghunna.