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What is special instruction about divorce in surah al-Ahzab?   

surah al-Ahzab
surah al-Ahzab is surah number 33 in the holy Quran, it discusses many topics including divorce, hijab, the Battle of Trench, and more.

The surah was revealed to the prophet Muhammed during his residence in Madina, and it was named surah ahzab because it discusses the battle of Ahzab or as known as the battle of Trench.

Among the many topics discussed in this surah, divorce was also discussed. Allah permitted divorce; however, it is one of the most hated things by Allah. The prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) said:

“Allah has not created on the face of this Earth anything more beloved by Him than freeing a slave, and He has not created anything on the face of this Earth more despised than divorce.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

What is special instruction about divorce in surah al-Ahzab? Allah mentioned divorce in surah al ahzab. Allah instructed men to compensate women and to let them go graciously. Allah ordered men to not harm women when they divorce them and to give them their rights. And that is shown in the following verse:
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ إِذَا نَكَحْتُمُ ٱلْمُؤْمِنَـٰتِ ثُمَّ طَلَّقْتُمُوهُنَّ مِن قَبْلِ أَن تَمَسُّوهُنَّ فَمَا لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ عِدَّةٍۢ تَعْتَدُّونَهَا ۖ فَمَتِّعُوهُنَّ وَسَرِّحُوهُنَّ سَرَاحًۭا جَمِيلًۭا ٤٩
“O, believers! If you marry believing women and then divorce them before you touch them,1 they will have no waiting period for you to count,2 so give them a ˹suitable˺ compensation, and let them go graciously.” [surah Ahzab.]

 
Why was surah al ahzab revealed?
Al ahzab surah was revealed to show the truth to believers. Among the many reasons this surah was revealed is that people kept calling Zayd bin Harithah by the name Zayd bin Muhammad. Therefore, Allah revealed the following verses to tell them that the prophet is not a father to anyone and that adopted kids have their own name to be called with. If you know the name of the child then you should call him with it.

 
وَمَا جَعَلَ أَدْعِيَآءَكُمْ أَبْنَآءَكُمْ
(nor has He made your adopted sons your real sons.) This was revealed concerning Zayd bin Harithah, may Allah be pleased with him, the freed servant of the Prophet. The Prophet had adopted him before prophethood, and he was known as Zayd bin Muhammad. Allah wanted to put an end to this naming and attribution, as He said:
مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَآ أَحَدٍۢ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَـٰكِن رَّسُولَ ٱللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ ٱلنَّبِيِّـۧنَ ۗ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيمًۭا ٤٠
“Muḥammad is not the father of any of your men, but is the Messenger of Allah and the seal of the prophets. And Allah has ˹perfect˺ knowledge of all things.”
وَمَا جَعَلَ أَدْعِيَآءَكُمْ أَبْنَآءَكُمْ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ قَوْلُكُم بِأَفْوَٰهِكُمْ ۖ وَٱللَّهُ يَقُولُ ٱلْحَقَّ وَهُوَ يَهْدِى ٱلسَّبِيلَ ٤
“ Nor does He regard your adopted children as your real children. These are only your baseless assertions. But Allah declares the truth, and He ˹alone˺ guides to the ˹Right˺ Way.”
ٱدْعُوهُمْ لِـَٔابَآئِهِمْ هُوَ أَقْسَطُ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ ۚ فَإِن لَّمْ تَعْلَمُوٓا۟ ءَابَآءَهُمْ فَإِخْوَٰنُكُمْ فِى ٱلدِّينِ وَمَوَٰلِيكُمْ ۚ وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌۭ فِيمَآ أَخْطَأْتُم بِهِۦ وَلَـٰكِن مَّا تَعَمَّدَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ غَفُورًۭا رَّحِيمًا ٥
“Let your adopted children keep their family names. That is more just in the sight of Allah. But if you do not know their fathers, then they are ˹simply˺ your fellow believers and close associates. There is no blame on you for what you do by mistake, but ˹only˺ for what you do intentionally. And Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”
What is surah al ahzab about?
The major topics discussed in this surah include:

  •       Worshiping Allah and not following the disbelievers and hypocrites.
  •       Topics including divorce, and the Status of an adopted son.
  •       The prophet’s wives are the mothers of the believers.
  •       The battle of al Ahzab (Battle of the Trench).
  •       Allah’s blessings.
  •       What the hypocrites do.
  •       Hijab.
  •       What will happen to the disbelievers in the afterlife?
  •       What will happen to the believers in the afterlife?

 
Where was surah al Ahzab revealed?
surah Azhab was revealed in the Madina, it consists of 73 verses in total, and discusses many important topics.
When was surah al Ahzab revealed?
Surah Al-Ahzab was revealed after 5 years from the prophet’s hijra to Madina. During that year there was the Battle of Ahzab (battle of Trench), the raid on Bani Quraizah.
Why the surah was named Al-Ahzab?
The surah was named Al-Ahzab because it discusses the battle of Ahzab. When the Jews of Medina, pagans of Mecca, and the hypocrites united against the Muslims to fight them. The Muslims dug a deep ditch around Medina to protect it from them. Therefore, the battle is known as the Battle of Ahzab/ Trench.

 What is the main theme of surah Ahzab?

The 73 verses of surah Ahzab discuss many topics including divorce, adopted children, hijab, and the battle of trench. The main theme of the surah is the Battle of the trench and what happened during the battle.
Is surah Ahzab Makki or Madani?
Surah Ahzab is a Madani surah, it was revealed to the prophet when he was in Madina. It is the surah number 33 in the holy Quran and number 90 in the order of revelation, with a total number of verses 73.
In which para is surah Ahzab?
Al-Ahzab surah starts in Para number 21 and ends in Juz number 22.
how to memorize surah Ahzab?
To memorize surah Ahzab the first thing you should do is to read the full surah slowly. Then take the first verse and repeat it a couple of times, when you finish, try to recite it by heart. When you make it move to the second verse and repeat the process. When you finish memorizing it, try to recite the two verses by heart, and if you succeed go to the next verse, and when you finish the third verse recite the three verses by heart and do the same until you memorize the full surah.

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Surah Ahzab benefits.
It is said that reciting surah Ahzab will save you from the punishment of the grave. The prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) said:

“Whoever recites surah Ahzab and teaches it to his family will be safe from the punishment of the grave.”

The one who read surat Ahzab will be in the company of the Prophet on the Day of Judgment. Abu Abdullah Ja‘far ibn Muhammad has said, “Whoever recites surah Ahzab very much will be in the company of the Prophet on the Day of Judgment.”

Reciting verse number 56 of the surah will fulfill your wishes. Musa ibn Ja‘far said, “Whoever recites verse 56 of surah Ahzab after his dawn and evening prayer and before standing up and then says, “اللهم صل علی محمدٍ النّبي و ذُرِّيَّته” Allah will fulfill 70 of his wishes in the world and 30 wishes in the Hereafter.”
Hadith on surah Al-Ahzab.
The prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) said:

“Whoever recites surah Ahzab and teaches it to his family will be safe from the punishment of the grave.”
surah al Ahzab Tafseer
Here’s the tafsir of the first verses of surah Ahzab:
وَلاَ تُطِعِ الْكَـفِرِينَ وَالْمُنَـفِقِينَ
(and obey not the disbelievers and the hypocrites.) means, do not listen to what they say and do not consult them.
إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيماً حَكِيماً
(Verily, Allah is Ever All-Knower, All-Wise) means, He is more deserving of your following His commandments and obeying Him, for He knows the consequences of all things and is Wise in all that He says and does. Allah says:
وَاتَّبِعْ مَا يُوحَى إِلَـيْكَ مِن رَبِّكَ
(And follow that which is revealed to you from your Lord.) meaning, of the Qur’an and Sunnah.
إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيراً
(Verily, Allah is Well-Acquainted with what you do.) means, nothing at all is hidden from Him and put your trust in Allah, i.e., in all your affairs and situations.
وَكَفَى بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلاً
(and sufficient is Allah as a Wakil.) means, sufficient is He as a Trustee for the one who puts his trust in Him and turns to Him.
مَّا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِرَجُلٍ مِّن قَلْبَيْنِ فِى جَوْفِهِ وَمَا جَعَلَ أَزْوَجَكُمُ اللاَّئِى تُظَـهِرُونَ مِنْهُنَّ أُمَّهَـتِكُمْ
(Allah has not made for any man two hearts inside his body. Neither has He made your wives whom you declare to be like your mothers’ backs, your real mothers…) This is like the Ayah:
Verses 3 to 4 Tafsir.
The Tafseer of verse 3 from surah Ahzab:
مَّا هُنَّ أُمَّهَـتِهِمْ إِنْ أُمَّهَـتُهُمْ إِلاَّ اللاَّئِى وَلَدْنَهُمْ
(They cannot be their mothers. None can be their mothers except those who gave them birth) (58:2).
مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَآ أَحَدٍ مّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَـكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيماً
(Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last (end) of the Prophets. And Allah is Ever All-Aware of everything.) (33:40). And Allah says here:
ذَلِكُمْ قَوْلُكُم بِأَفْوَهِكُمْ
(That is what you’re saying with your mouths.) meaning, `your adoption of him is just words, and it does not mean that he is really your son,’ for he was created from the loins of another man, and a child cannot have two fathers just as a man cannot have two hearts in one body.
وَاللَّهُ يَقُولُ الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ يَهْدِى السَّبِيلَ
(But Allah says the truth, and He guides to the way.) Sa`id bin Jubayr said:
يَقُولُ الْحَقَّ
(But Allah says the truth,) means, justice. Qatadah said:
وَهُوَ يَهْدِى السَّبِيلَ
(and He guides to the way) means, the straight path. Imam Ahmad said that Hasan told them that Zuhayr told them from Qabus, meaning Ibn Abi Zibyan, that his father told him: “I said to Ibn `Abbas, `Do you know the Ayah,
مَّا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِرَجُلٍ مِّن قَلْبَيْنِ فِى جَوْفِهِ
(Allah has not made for any man two hearts inside his body.) What does this mean’ He said that the Messenger of Allah stood up one day to pray, and he trembled. The hypocrites who were praying with him said, `Do you not see that he has two hearts, one heart with you and another with them’ Then Allah revealed the words:
مَّا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِرَجُلٍ مِّن قَلْبَيْنِ فِى جَوْفِهِ
(Allah has not made for any man two hearts inside his body.)” This was also narrated by At-Tirmidhi, who said, “It is a Hasan Hadith”. It was also narrated by Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim from the Hadith of Zuhayr.

An Adopted Child should be named after His Real Father
Verse number 4 Tafseer.
ادْعُوهُمْ لاًّبَآئِهِمْ هُوَ أَقْسَطُ عِندَ اللَّهِ
(Call them (adopted sons) by their fathers, that is more just with Allah.) This is a command which abrogates the state of affairs that existed at the beginning of Islam when it was permitted to call adopted sons after the man who adopted them. Then Allah commanded that they should be given back the names of their real fathers, and stated that this was more fair and just.
لِكَىْ لاَ يَكُونَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ حَرَجٌ فِى أَزْوَاجِ أَدْعِيَآئِهِمْ إِذَا قَضَوْاْ مِنْهُنَّ وَطَراً
(So that (in future) there may be no difficulty to the believers in respect of the wives of their adopted sons when the latter have no desire to keep them) (33:37). And Allah says in Ayat At-Tahrim:
 وَحَلَـئِلُ أَبْنَآئِكُمُ الَّذِينَ مِنْ أَصْلَـبِكُمْ
(The wives of your sons from your own loins) (4:23). The wife of an adopted son is not included because he was not born from the man’s loins. A “foster” son through breastfeeding is the same as a son born from one’s own loins, from the point of view of Shari`ah, because the Prophet said in the Two Sahihs:
 «حَرَّمُوا مِنَ الرَّضَاعَةِ مَا يُحَرَّمُ مِنَ النَّسَب»
(Suckling makes unlawful as lineage does.) As for calling a person “son” as an expression of honor and endearment, this is not what is forbidden in this Ayah, as is indicated by the report recorded by Imam Ahmad and the Sunan compilers — apart from At-Tirmidhi — from Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: “We young boys of Banu `Abd Al-Muttalib came to the Messenger of Allah at the Jamarat; he slapped us on the thigh and said,
 «(أُبَيْنِيَّ) لَا تَرْمُوا الْجَمْرَةَ حَتَّى تَطْلُعَ الشَّمْس»
(O my sons, do not stone the Jamarah until the sun has risen.) This was during the Farewell Pilgrimage in 10 AH.

 
ادْعُوهُمْ لاًّبَآئِهِمْ
(Call them by their fathers.) This is concerning Zayd bin Harithah, may Allah be pleased with him. He was killed in 8 AH at the battle of Mu’tah. In Sahih Muslim it is reported that Anas bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “The Messenger of Allah said:

 
«يَابَنِي»
(O my son.)” It was also reported by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi.

 

فَإِن لَّمْ تَعْلَمُواْ ءَابَاءَهُمْ فَإِخوَانُكُمْ فِى الدِّينِ وَمَوَلِيكُمْ

(But if you know not their father then they are your brothers in the religion and Mawalikum (your freed servants).) Here Allah commands that adopted sons should be given back their fathers’ names if they are known; if they are not known, then they should be called brothers in faith or freed servants, to compensate for not knowing what their real lineage is.وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ فِيمَآ أَخْطَأْتُمْ بِهِ

(And there is no sin on you concerning that in which you made a mistake,) meaning, if you call one of them after someone who is not in fact his father, by mistake, after trying your best to find out his parentage, then Allah will not attach any sin to this mistake.
 وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ فِيمَآ أَخْطَأْتُمْ بِهِ وَلَـكِن مَّا تَعَمَّدَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُوراً رَّحِيماً
(And there is no sin on you concerning that in which you made a mistake, except in regard to what your hearts deliberately intend. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) meaning, the sin is on the person who deliberately does something wrong, as Allah says elsewhere:
 لاَّ يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللَّهُ بِالَّلغْوِ فِى أَيْمَـنِكُمْ
(Allah will not call you to account for that which is unintentional in your oaths) (2:225). Imam Ahmad narrated from Ibn Abbas that `Umar said: “Allah sent Muhammad with the Truth and revealed to him the Book. One of the things that were revealed in it was the Ayah of stoning, so the Messenger of Allah stoned adulterers and we stoned them after he died.” Then he said, “We also used to recite, `Do not attribute yourselves to anyone other than your fathers, for this is disbelief, to attribute yourselves to anyone other than your fathers.”‘

 surah al Ahzab summary

Surah Al-Ahzab is the surah number 33 in the holy Quran, it discusses many topics including divorce, hijab, the Battle of Trench, and more.

The surah was revealed to the prophet Muhammed during his residence in Madina, and it was named surah Ahzab because it discusses the battle of Ahzab or as known as the battle of Trench.

The major topics discussed are:

  •       Worshiping Allah and not following the disbelievers and hypocrites.
  •       Topics include divorce and the Status of an adopted son.
  •       The prophet’s wives are the mothers of the believers.
  •       The battle of al Ahzab (Battle of the Trench).
  •       Allah’s blessings.
  •       What the hypocrites do.
  •       Hijab.
  •       What will happen to the disbelievers in the afterlife?
  •       What will happen to the believers in the afterlife?

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